Williams-Sonoma, Inc. is a high-end American consumer retail company that sells kitchenwares, furniture and linens, as well as other housewares and home furnishings, along with a variety of specialty foods, soaps and lotions. Its international corporate headquarters are in San Francisco, California, United States.
Williams-Sonoma’s Smart Tools Tablet Kitchen Stand is a stand designed for use in the kitchen. The angle that it is set at is perfect for most people who are reading and referencing recipes while standing up, and it can hold the tablet both vertically and horizontally. It has a nonslip surface both on the top and the bottom of the stand, which prevents the base from sliding on the counter and also allows you to rest your tablet flat against the top surface of the stand, if you choose. The brushed metal finish is sleek and wipes clean easily, and there is a small notch underneath the stand in case you need to run a power cord to your device as you use it. It is also small, light and easy to store when it is not in use.
With a good stand, you’ll probably bring your iPad, or other tablet, into the kitchen a lot more often and be able to use it a lot more efficiently, too.
3.BAKING AND PASTRY TOOLS
The rolling pin is used for shaping and rolling dough.
Measuring Spoons and Cups
You will need to use measuring spoons and cups for accuracy. These tools are inexpensive and should be kept close by your mixing area.
You can use a heavy-duty electric stand mixer as an alternative to mixing dough by hand. These mixers use a dough hook attachment or a mixing blade to replicate hand kneading.
Keep a sturdy 4-quart (or more) capacity mixing bowl on hand. I use ceramic, plastic and wooden bowls. You’ll also need various sized bowls for mixing glazes and washes.
Keep several pastry brushes for applying glazes and brushing swee doughs with butter. The newer silicone pastry brushes work great and are easy to clean.
Whisks are very handy in bread making. You can use stainless steel wire wisks or the newer silicone version. I also like to use a long-handled Danish dough whisk when making yeast breads.
Long-handled wooden spoons work very well. Make sure to keep the spoons oiled with mineral oil.
Nothing can beat your senses in judging if the dough is ready, but a time lets you relax and do other things during rest times throughout the baking process.
Plastic Scraper and Spatula
These tools are used to help remove dough that is stuck on the inside of bowls and bread machine pans. The scraper is used to transfer and lift sticky dough during the kneading process.
Pans give shape to loaves that might not necessarily be strong enough to hold their own shape.
Loaf pans are standard rectangular-shaped pans and can be made of heavy-gauge aluminum, pyrex glass, disposable aluminum foil or paper or ceramic materials. If you use glass pans, remember to lower the oven temperature by 25° because they absorb heat quickly.
Common sizes: 9″ x 5″ or 8 1/2″ x 4 1/2″
You’ll also need a few good baking sheets. Look for ones made of the heaviest gauge aluminum or tin-plated steel so they won’t warp at high temperatures. The size of your oven will determine the size of your baking sheet. It’s better to use sheets that are a few inches smaller than your oven to allow for adequate heat circulation.
Common sizes: 10 1/2″ x 15″ jelly roll with a raised 1 inch edge, 11″ x 17″ half-sheet baking sheet, 9 1/2 x 12 1/2″ quarter-sheet pan.
The pasrtry and dough blender is great for mixing flours and other dry ingredients. It helps to eliminate lumps and unevenness in your doughs.
Food and drink
- Bar (establishment), a retail establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, also the counter at which drinks are served by a bartender
- Dessert bar, a type of cookie
- Dive bar
Bar stools are a type of tall stool, often with a foot rest, which because of their height and narrowness are designed for seating in a public house or bar. However, bar stools are becoming more popular in homes, usually placed at the kitchen counter or at a home barBar stools are becoming more popular because their varied styles not only are more appealing than the common wooden stool but actually accentuate the theme of a home. Bar stools allow for a higher view when eating, drinking, or socializing and can add to the atmosphere, given the right bar stool.There are many different constructions. Bar stools are often made of wood or metal. There are bar stools with and without armrests, back, and padding on the seat surface. Bar stools can range from basic wooden designs to extremely detailed ones with a custom height for the perfect fit. Extra tall and extra short are common features, as well as indoor bar stools and outdoor bar stools. Some bar stools have backs, while most do not.
In commercial settings, swivel and floor mounted bar stools are common, floor mounting renders the stool less likely to be moved, stolen or used as a weapon. Floor mounted stools generally are mounted on a column but stools with legs can also be secured to the floor using metal angles.
The normal seat height for a bar stool is 30″ (76 cm) with a 26″ (66 cm) stool being used against kitchen counters. Extra tall 36″ (91 cm) stools are increasingly used in contemporary styles with high pub tables to create a striking visual effect in modern interiors. By comparison a conventional dining chair seat height is 18″ (46 cm).
Aluminum is a good choice of material for stools that will be used outdoors and stacking aluminum stools and patio chairs are extensively used by commercial premises. Indoors wood and upholstery are very popular choices in traditional settings.Bar stools are commonly used in pool or billiard halls and the style of chair customized for such use is often called a “spectator chair”.Seating is a growth area for consumers and on line purchasing is on the increase, with drop shipped bar stools and dining chairs now forming a large marketBoth wooden and metal bar stools are popular and contemporary stainless and chrome styles including adjustable height bar stools are increasingly popular.
A bar spoon is a long handled spoon used in bartending for mixing and layering of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic mixed drinks. Its length ensures that it can reach to bottom of the tallest jug or tumbler to mix ingredients directly in the glass.
A bar spoon holds about 5 millilitres of liquid (the same as a conventional teaspoon). Its long handle is similar to an iced tea spoon but is usually decorative and elegant – some variations mimic large swizzle sticks, with a disc at one end.
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container. Canning provides a typical shelf life ranging from one to five years, although under specific circumstances a freeze-dried canned product, such as canned, dried lentils, can last as long as 30 years in an edible state.To prevent the food from being spoiled before and during containment, a number of methods are used: pasteurisation, boiling (and other applications of high temperature over a period of time), refrigeration, freezing, drying, vacuum treatment, antimicrobial agents that are natural to the recipe of the foods being preserved, a sufficient dose of ionizing radiation, submersion in a strong saline solution, acid, base, osmotically extreme (for example very sugary) or other microbially-challenging environments.
Home canning or bottling, also known colloquially as putting up or processing, is the process of preserving foods, in particular, fruits, vegetables, and meats, by packing them into glass jars and then heating the jars to kill the organisms that would create spoilage.
Thoroughly wash food items
- Preparation methods and processing times for canning. Differs for each food, for partial list, see the following link
- Kills the spore-forming bacteria
- Usually pressurize foods at 10 pounds per square inch (psi); add 1/2 psi per 1,000 ft. of elevation
- This process will kill the spores and denature the toxin
Prior to consumption:
- Boil home canned veggies first
- Boil for 10 minutes plus 1 minute per 1,000 ft of elevation
- Home canned fruits – use boiling water bath
Acidic foods are less likely to induce botulinum toxin production because low pH inhibits germination. Tomatoes are an unlikely food vehicle because of the acidity.
- Add acid (vinegar, lemon/lime juice) to lower pH but in acidic foods like tomatoes and fruits, germination may still occur if molds or other bacteria are present.
- Molds or other bacteria can raise the pH.
Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food to stop or slow down food spoilage, loss of quality, edibility or nutritional value and thus allow for longer food storage.
Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi (such as yeasts), and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. Food preservation can also include processes which inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut, which can occur during food preparation.
Many processes designed to preserve food will involve a number of food preservation methods. Preserving fruit by turning it into jam, for example, involves boiling (to reduce the fruit’s moisture content and to kill bacteria, yeasts, etc.), sugaring (to prevent their re-growth) and sealing within an airtight jar (to prevent recontamination). There are many traditional methods of preserving food that limit the energy inputs and reduce carbon footprint
Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavour is an important aspect of food preservation, although, historically, some methods drastically altered the character of the food being preserved. In many cases these changes have now come to be seen as desirable qualities – cheese, yoghurt and pickled onions being common examples.
Drying is one of the most ancient food preservation techniques, which reduces water activity sufficiently to prevent bacterial growth.
Refrigeration preserves food by slowing down the growth and reproduction of micro-organisms and the action of enzymes which cause food to rot. The introduction of commercial and domestic refrigerators drastically improved the diets of many in the Western world by allowing foods such as fresh fruit, salads and dairy products to be stored safely for longer periods, particularly during warm weather.
Freezing is also one of the most commonly used processes commercially and domestically for preserving a very wide range of food including prepared food stuffs which would not have required freezing in their unprepared state. For example, potato waffles are stored in the freezer, but potatoes themselves require only a cool dark place to ensure many months’ storage. Cold stores provide large volume, long-term storage for strategic food stocks held in case of national emergency in many countries.
Vacuum-packing stores food in a vacuum environment, usually in an air-tight bag or bottle. The vacuum environment strips bacteria of oxygen needed for survival, slowing spoiling. Vacuum-packing is commonly used for storing nuts to reduce loss of flavor from oxidation.
Salting or curing draws moisture from the meat through a process of osmosis. Meat is cured with salt or sugar, or a combination of the two. Nitrates and nitrites are also often used to cure meat and contribute the characteristic pink color, as well as inhibition of Clostridium botulinum.
Sugar is used to preserve fruits, either in syrup with fruit such as apples, pears, peaches, apricots, plums or in crystallized form where the preserved material is cooked in sugar to the point of crystallisation and the resultant product is then stored dry. This method is used for the skins of citrus fruit (candied peel), angelica and ginger. A modification of this process produces glacé fruit such as glacé cherries where the fruit is preserved in sugar but is then extracted from the syrup and sold, the preservation being maintained by the sugar content of the fruit and the superficial coating of syrup. The use of sugar is often combined with alcohol for preservation of luxury products such as fruit in brandy or other spirits. These should not be confused with fruit flavored spirits such as cherry brandy or Sloe gin.
Smoking is used to lengthen the shelf life of perishable food items. This effect is achieved by exposing the food to smoke from burning plant materials such as wood. Most commonly subjected to this method of food preservation are meats and fish that have undergone curing. Fruits and vegetables like paprika, cheeses, spices, and ingredients for making drinks such as malt and tea leaves are also smoked, but mainly for cooking or flavoring them. It is one of the oldest food preservation methods, which probably arose after the development of cooking with fire.
Artificial food additives
Preservative food additives can be antimicrobial; which inhibit the growth of bacteria or fungi, including mold, or antioxidant; such as oxygen absorbers, which inhibit the oxidation of food constituents. Common antimicrobial preservatives include calcium propionate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sulfites (sulfur dioxide, sodium bisulfite, potassium hydrogen sulfite, etc.) and disodium EDTA. Antioxidants include BHA and BHT. Other preservatives include formaldehyde (usually in solution), glutaraldehyde (kills insects), ethanol and methylchloroisothiazolinone.
Pickling is a method of preserving food in an edible anti-microbial liquid. Pickling can be broadly categorized into two categories: chemical pickling and fermentation pickling.
In chemical pickling, the food is placed in an edible liquid that inhibits or kills bacteria and other micro-organisms. Typical pickling agents include brine (high in salt), vinegar, alcohol, and vegetable oil, especially olive oil but also many other oils. Many chemical pickling processes also involve heating or boiling so that the food being preserved becomes saturated with the pickling agent. Common chemically pickled foods include cucumbers, peppers, corned beef, herring, and eggs, as well as mixed vegetables such as piccalilli.
In fermentation pickling, the food itself produces the preservation agent, typically by a process that produces lactic acid. Fermented pickles include sauerkraut, nukazuke, kimchi, surströmming, and curtido. Some pickled cucumbers are also fermented.
Sodium hydroxide (lye) makes food too alkaline for bacterial growth. Lye will saponify fats in the food, which will change its flavor and texture. Lutefisk uses lye in its preparation, as do some olive recipes. Modern recipes for century eggs also call for lye. Masa harina and hominy use agricultural lime in their preparation and this is often misheard as ‘lye’.
Canning and bottling
Canning involves cooking food, sealing it in sterile cans or jars, and boiling the containers to kill or weaken any remaining bacteria as a form of sterilization. It was invented by Nicolas Appert.Foods have varying degrees of natural protection against spoilage and may require that the final step occur in a pressure cooker. High-acid fruits like strawberries require no preservatives to can and only a short boiling cycle, whereas marginal fruits such as tomatoes require longer boiling and addition of other acidic elements. Low acid foods, such as vegetables and meats require pressure canning. Food preserved by canning or bottling is at immediate risk of spoilage once the can or bottle has been opened.
Food may be preserved by cooking in a material that solidifies to form a gel. Such materials include gelatine, agar, maize flour and arrowroot flour. Some foods naturally form a protein gel when cooked such as eels and elvers, and sipunculid worms which are a delicacy in Xiamen in Fujian province of the People’s Republic of China. Jellied eels are a delicacy in the East End of London where they are eaten with mashed potatoes. Potted meats in aspic, (a gel made from gelatine and clarified meat broth) were a common way of serving meat off-cuts in the UK until the 1950s. Many jugged meats are also jellied.
Meat can be preserved by jugging, the process of stewing the meat (commonly game or fish) in a covered earthenware jug or casserole. The animal to be jugged is usually cut into pieces, placed into a tightly-sealed jug with brine or gravy, and stewed. Red wine and/or the animal’s own blood is sometimes added to the cooking liquid. Jugging was a popular method of preserving meat up until the middle of the 20th century.
The radiation process is unrelated to nuclear energy, but it may use the radiation emitted from radioactive nuclides produced in nuclear reactors. Ionizing radiation is hazardous to life (hence its usefulness in sterilisation); for this reason irradiation facilities have a heavily shielded irradiation room where the process takes place. Radiation safety procedures ensure that neither the workers in such facility nor the environment receive any radiation dose from the facility. Irradiated food does not become radioactive, and national and international expert bodies have declared food irradiation as wholesome. However, the wholesomeness of consuming such food is disputed by opponents and consumer organizations.National and international expert bodies have declared food irradiation as ‘wholesome’; UN-organizations as WHO and FAO are endorsing to use food irradiation. International legislation on whether food may be irradiated or not varies worldwide from no regulation to full banning.Irradiation may allow lower quality or contaminated foodstuffs to be rendered marketable.
Pulsed electric field processing
Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is a method for processing cells by means of brief pulses of a strong electric field. PEF holds potential as a type of low temperature alternative pasteurization process for sterilizing food products. In PEF processing, a substance is placed between two electrodes, then the pulsed electric field is applied. The electric field enlarges the pores of the cell membranes which kills the cells and releases their contents. PEF for food processing is a developing technology still being researched. There have been limited industrial applications of PEF processing for the pasteurization of fruit juices.
Modifying atmosphere is a way to preserve food by operating on the atmosphere around it. Salad crops which are notoriously difficult to preserve are now being packaged in sealed bags with an atmosphere modified to reduce the oxygen (O2) concentration and increase the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. There is concern that although salad vegetables retain their appearance and texture in such conditions, this method of preservation may not retain nutrients, especially vitamins. Grains may be preserved using carbon dioxide by one of two methods; either using a block of dry ice placed in the bottom and the can is filled with grain or the container can be purged from the bottom by gaseous carbon dioxide from a cylinder or bulk supply vessel.
High pressure food preservation
High pressure food preservation refers to high pressure used for food preservation. “Pressed inside a vessel exerting 70,000 pounds per square inch (480 MPa) or more, food can be processed so that it retains its fresh appearance, flavour, texture and nutrients while disabling harmful microorganisms and slowing spoilage. By 2005 the process was being used for products ranging from orange juice to guacamole to deli meats and widely sold
Burial in the ground
Burial of food can preserve it due to a variety of factors: lack of light, lack of oxygen, cool temperatures, pH level, or desiccants in the soil. Burial may be combined with other methods such as salting or fermentation. Most foods can be preserved in soil that is very dry and salty (thus a desiccant), or soil that is frozen.
Controlled use of micro-organism
Some foods, such as many cheeses, wines, and beers will keep for a long time because their production uses specific micro-organisms that combat spoilage from other less benign organisms. These micro-organisms keep pathogens in check by creating an environment toxic for themselves and other micro-organisms by producing acid or alcohol. Starter micro-organisms, salt, hops, controlled (usually cool) temperatures, controlled (usually low) levels of oxygen and/or other methods are used to create the specific controlled conditions that will support the desirable organisms that produce food fit for human consumption.
Biopreservation is the use of natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials as a way of preserving food and extending its shelf life. Beneficial bacteria or the fermentation products produced by these bacteria are used in biopreservation to control spoilage and render pathogens inactive in food. It is a benign ecological approach which is gaining increasing attention.
Hurdle technology is a method of ensuring that pathogens in food products can be eliminated or controlled by combining more than one approach. These approaches can be thought of as “hurdles” the pathogen has to overcome if it is to remain active in the food. The right combination of hurdles can ensure all pathogens are eliminated or rendered harmless in the final product
7.Colander and Strainer
A colander is a bowl-shaped kitchen utensil with holes in it used for draining food such as pasta or rice.
The perforated nature of the colander allows liquid to drain through while retaining the solids inside. It is sometimes also called a pasta strainer or kitchen sieve.
Water lines or kitchen systems can get gravel, deposits that break free, and other stray items in the line. Due to the velocity of the water pushing them, they can severely damage or clog devices installed in the flow stream of the water line, for example p-traps or pipes. A strainer is essentially a screen installed to allow water to pass through, but not larger items. The larger items fall to the bottom or are held in a basket for later clean out. They normally have an access that allows for them to be cleaned or have the strainer plate or basket replaced.
Strainers come in several different styles based on the needs. A plate strainer is the simplest, in which water flows through a perforated plate. Often the plate is corrugated shape to increase surface area. A basket strainer is a design where the strainer is shaped like a basket and usually installed in a vertical system. The basket strainer is easier to clean, since debris is captured in the basket. It can also sometimes offer more straining surface area than a plate strainer, improving flow rates, or decreasing pressure loss through the strainer.
A cookbook is a kitchen reference publication that typically contains a collection of recipes. Modern versions may also include colorful illustrations and advice on purchasing quality ingredients or making substitutions. Cookbooks can also cover a wide variety topics, including cooking techniques for the home, recipes and commentary from famous chefs, institutional kitchen manuals, and cultural commentary.
International and ethnic cookbooks fall into two categories: the kitchen references of other cultures, translated into other languages; and books translating the recipes of another culture into the languages, techniques, and ingredients of a new audience. The latter style often doubles as a sort of culinary travelogue, giving background and context to a recipe that the first type of book would assume its audience is already familiar with.
Professional cookbooks are designed for the use of working chefs and culinary students and somet
imes double as textbooks for culinary schools. Such books deal not only in recipes and techniques, but often service and kitchen workflow matters. Many such books deal in substantially larger quantities than home cookbooks, such as making sauces by the liter or preparing dishes for large numbers of people in a catering setting.Community cookbooks (also known as compiled, regional, charitable, and fund-raising cookbooks) are a unique genre of culinary literature. Community cookbooks focus on home cooking, often documenting regional, ethnic, family, and societal traditions, as well as local historyCookbooks can also document the food of a specific chef (particularly in conjunction with a cooking show
A kitchen utensil is a hand-held, typically small tool or utensil that is used in the kitchen, for food-related functions. A cooking utensil is a utensil used in the kitchen for cooking. Other names for the same thing, or subsets thereof, derive from the word “ware“, and describe kitchen utensils from a merchandising (and functional) point of view: kitchenware, wares for the kitchen; ovenware and bakeware, kitchen utensils that are for use inside ovens and for baking; cookware, merchandise used for cooking; and so forth.
A partially overlapping category of tools is that of eating utensils, which are tools used for eating (c.f. the more general category of tableware). Some utensils are both kitchen utensils and eating utensils. Cutlery (i.e. knives and other cutting implements) can be used for both food preparation in a kitchen and as eating utensils when dining. Other cutlery
A cutting board is a durable board on which to place material for cutting. The kitchen cutting board is commonly used in preparing food; other types exist for cutting raw materials such as leather or plastic. Kitchen cutting boards are often made of wood or plastic and come in various widths and sizes. There are also cutting boards made of glass, steel or marble, which are easier to clean than wooden or plastic ones such as nylon or corian, but tend to damage knives due to their hardness. Rough cutting edges — such as serrated knives — abrade and damage a cutting surface more rapidly than do smooth cutting implements.
Wood has some advantages over plastic in that it is somewhat self-healing; shallow cuts in the wood will close up on their own. Wood also has natural anti-septic properties.
Hardwoods with tightly grained wood and small pores are best for wooden cutting boards. Good hardness and tight grain help reduce scoring of the cutting surface and absorption of liquid and dirt into the surface. Red oak for example, even though a hardwood, has large pores, so it retains dirt even after washing, making it a poor choice for cutting-board material.
Teak‘s tight grains and natural coloration make it a highly attractive cutting-board material, both for aesthetic and durability purposes. Teak, a tropical wood, contains tectoquinones, components of natural oily resins that repel moisture, fungi, warping, rot and microbes.
Wood boards need to be cared for with mineral oil to avoid warping, and should not be left in puddles of liquid.
Care must be taken when selecting wood, especially tropical hardwood, for use as a cutting board, as some species contain toxins or allergens.
Although technically a grass, laminated strips of bamboo also make an attractive and durable cutting-board material.
Bamboo cutting boards are an alternative to plastic or glass cutting boards. Unlike some synthetic materials, bamboo is naturally antimicrobial making it resistant to bacteria. During the harvesting process, bamboo is carefully chosen for maturation, markings, and size. The stalk is then cut into specific sizes and sent through a pressing process that strips the stalks into smaller plank-like pieces. Once the bamboo is pliable, it can then be shaped and constructed into a finished cutting board ready for use in your kitchen.
While plastic is theoretically a more sanitary material than wood for cutting boards, varying tests show plastic is safer then wood, and just as many that say wood is safer then plastic. When well washed, the score lines in the surface should not harbour bacteria. If there is no food residue on the board, there is nothing for bacteria to grow from. (food source and moisture) Most High Density polyethylene plastic boards are specifically designed not to dull your edge of the knife. If you see a score line, your knife is safe. However, unlike wood, plastic boards do allow rinsing with harsher cleaning chemicals such as bleach and other disinfectants without damage to the board or retention of the chemicals to later contaminate food. You should not use a serrated knife on a plastic cutting board. The sharper your knife, the longer your cutting board will last.
Plastic boards are usually called PE Cutting boards, PE being a shorthand for polyethylene, or HDPE, High Density Polyethylene Plastic, the material of which these boards are made. There are basically 2 types of HDPE boards being made. One version is (typically) most of the imported plastic from Asia, made from Injection molded plastic. The other is HDPE from an extrusion line, typically Made in USA. There are several certifications of plastic cutting boards, one Being NSF, that certifies the plastic has passed requirements to come in contact with your food.
Semi-disposable thin flexible cutting boards also ease transferring their contents to a cooking or storage vessel.
A recent trend has seen thick solid rubber pads used as cutting boards in the Sani-Tuff line popular in restaurant kitchens. They are about as expensive as well-made wood boards, they can take chemical disinfectants, and they are very heavy for their size, so they tend not to slip. Proponents claim remarkable self-healing properties, the same knife protection as good plastic or wood boards, and an inability to harbor significant amounts of moisture or bacteria.
While glass looks like an easy surface to keep clean, glass cutting boards can damage knives because of the high hardness of the material. Cutting on glass tends to dent, roll or even chip knife edges in a rapid manner. Additionally, if used for chopping instead of slicing, glass can shatter or chip itself, contaminating food.
Steel shares with glass the advantages of the durability and ease of cleaning, as well as the tendency to damage knives. Depending on the exact steel and heat treatment used, at best a steel cutting board will wear the edge on knives quickly; at worst chip, dent, or roll it like glass.
11.FRUIT AND VEGETABLE TOOLS
12.GRATERS AND PEELERS